Microbial Degradation of Xenobiotics (Environmental Science and Engineering)

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Outcomes have resulted into identification of well validated biological signatures of endosulfan toxicity. Study on evaluation of impact of elevated carbon dioxide on crop productivity and carbon sequestration reveals that in changing high CO2 climatic conditions, Brassica juncea mustard plants will have increased plant productivity and higher seed yield.

Process optimization studies at 10 ltr scale is being conducted.

Biodegradation: Involved Microorganisms and Genetically Engineered Microorganisms

Call for Proposal for current FY or New Programme Launched if any With the objective to provide various possible environmental technologies, brainstorming and discussion meetings have been organised for strategy planning towards development of project proposals for various possible biotechnology options, identify gap areas and to develop translational research projects.

Research areas may include i Analysis of the microbial community that inhabit in the dumps and capable of bringing changes in building material, plastics and biomass; ii Isolation of new and novel microbes that decompose plastics, which can be used for efficient recycling of plastics that form a circular business involving plastics so that the plastics do not enter environment; iii Isolation of new and novel microbes that enhance methane production from biodegradable biomass dumped in the landfills.

Development and Demonstration of Remediation technologies for agricultural run-off for removal of chemical fertilizers and pesticide pollution. Demonstration Projects on environmental conservation and eco-restoration. Development and demonstration of technologies for management of Air Pollution Management like Carbon Sequestration through microbial and enzymatic routes, Bio-filters for oxidation of air pollutants etc. Sensors that can in situ detect heavy metals, pesticides, toxin-generating blooms and antibiotic and other drugs would indeed be highly desirable.

Biosensors need to be developed for our country-specific range of pollutants and ecological situations. Project on development of conceptual models and Policy framework for circular bio-economy. Translational research and demonstration projects on development of efficient microbial fuel cells for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and pollutants removal from wastewater.

Isolate or screen the existing isolates for their ability to produce biosurfactant and develop consortia of Biosurfactant producing microbes along with other xenobiotic degrading isolates, which will help in effective bioremediation.

Environmental science-Xenobiotics

Other applications of Biosurfactants like in paints, food additives, oil spill containment, MEOR etc. Rapid industrialization, fast urbanization and increased technological advancement of the world during the 20th century proved to be a blessing as well as a curse on certain counts, as it also resulted in accumulation of huge heaps of environmental wastes and hazardous persistent substances.

Advent of biotechnology in the last quarter of 20th century heralded a new era in combating the problems of environmental pollution.


The present volume is a collection of articles on process mechanism and microbiology of biodegradation, sonobiodegradation, biodegradation of wood, bioremediation of heavy metals and soils, microbial bioleaching and many more for interest of personnel involved in disciplines of biotechnology, microbiology, biochemistry, soil sciences and environmental sciences.

Write Your Own Review How do you rate this product? Submit Review. Submit Please Wait Abiotic factors play an important role in increasing the surface availability for microbial growth on polymers; these factors include photo-oxidation, physical disintegration and hydrolysis that cause decreasing molecular weight Singh and Sharma Peroxidant additives are employed in polyethylene manufacturing for agriculturally used plastic, this type of polyethylene showing susceptibility to thermal and photochemical mineralization in vitro.

In addition to UV and heat treatments, it reduces the strength of hydroxyls and carbonyls by changing their structure Feuilloley et al. Similar results were reported by Psomiadou et al.

Rhizoremediation: A Promising Rhizosphere Technology

Arvanitoyannis et al. Microorganisms take part in degradation via modification of their metabolic functional pathways according to environmental conditions to utilize xenobiotic compounds. A bioremediation process is more affordable by discovering novel catabolic mechanisms Ojo The biodegradation process is slow but this does not indicate that ingredients in plastic material and polymers are not bioactive. Polycarbonate plastics undergo leaching of bioactive bisphenol-A monomer when undergoing salt exposure in seawater.

Commercial use of several synthetic polymers made with bioactive additives monomers, which are non-stick compounds; softeners and UV stabilizers are found in nature. Their degradation rate depends on the environmental circumstances. Symphony is a type of polymeric material that is used in polyethylene formation and degradable in nature Moore ; Kumar et al.

Yoon et al. They found The alk B gene encoded the enzyme alkane hydroxylase, and Yoon et al. E4 to E. Santo et al. Nowadays different groups of microorganisms are reported for biofilm formation. Similarly, Tribedi et al. Odusanya et al.

Similarly, Ambika et al. Das and Kumar investigated a sample of municipal solid soil for distribution of polymer degrading microorganisms and isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BSM-1 and B. Das and Kumar found enhanced biodegradation with strain B. Similarly, Gajendiran et al. They exploited A. The number of carbons present on the polymer influenced the rate of degradation via enzyme interactions. Structural arrangements are also important in degradation; it was observed that amorphous regions are more susceptible to microbial attack.

Thomas et al. They used P.

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Pramila et al. The polymer LDPE degradation potentials of bacterial strains were determined by the biofilm formation ability on polymers and CO 2 evolution from the carbon mineralization of polymer. Muenmee et al.

Degradation was accomplished under lysimeters in different environmental conditions. AL, Nitrobacter winogradkyi, Burkholderia sp. Duddu et al.


Abrusci et al. These microorganisms were isolated from soil-buried polyethylene films and B. Degradation of polymers was observed by means of biofilm formation and other deformities, characterized and confirmed by ATR, FTIR, chemiluminescence and GC-product analysis. The maximum carbon mineralization was found at Devi et al. Biofilm formation and surface deformation as a result of fungal degradation were determined by epifluorescent microscope and SEM. Hadad et al. They found maximum biodegradation with pretreated photo-oxidation polyethylene samples by means of reduction in molecular weight and gravimetric weight, i.

Similarly, Fontanella et al. They used manganese, iron and cobalt as prooxidants in polythene; samples were placed for pretreatment by thermal method and photooxidation. They exploited Rhodococcus rhodochrous in the degradation of pretreated polymer samples. Bacterial activity and biodegradation were determined by adenosine triphosphate content and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, respectively; surface alteration was confirmed by SEM analysis. It was found that accelerated degradation of polyethylene was observed for abiotic treatments that included thermo- and photo-oxidation. These treatments oxidized the prooxidants and helped polyethylene degradation.

Exploitation of prooxidants as blended in polyethylene formation make it further susceptible to microbial deterioration. Mehmood et al.

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Out of three strains, CC18 showed enhanced viability and degradation. Sheik et al. On the other hand, Shahnawaz et al.

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Microorganisms are capable of degrading inorganic and organic materials, and interest has been aroused to study microbes for their ability to degrade plastic polymers. Biofilm formation improves the degradation efficiency followed by the mineralization polyethylene glycols mineralization process. Rhodococcus ruber has been reported to colonize and degrade polyethylene by forming a biofilm and hydrolyting enzymes.

Polyethylene biodegradation was improved by introducing peroxidant additives in manufacturing processes that make it susceptible to in vitro thermal and photochemical mineralization. Fungi like A. Fusarium lini is involved in synthesizing dehydratase, which is responsible for polyvinyl alcohol degradation with CO 2 and H 2 O formation. The above discussion illustrates the occurrence of polymer-degrading microorganisms.

Hence, further studies on the screening of effective microbial strains are essential to minimize polymer risks for the environment. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 65 3 — Aburas MMA Degradation of poly 3-hydroxybuthyrate using Aspergillus oryzae obtained from uncultivated soil.

Aqueous Phase Biodegradation Kinetics of 10 PAH Compounds | Environmental Engineering Science

Life Sci J 13 3 — Macromolecules — Appl Environ Microbiol 64 1 — J Basic Microbiol — Microbiol Biotechnol 9 2 — Int J Rec Sci Res 6 7 — Ind J Biotechnol 7 1 :9— Carbohydr Polym 36 2 — Appl Microbiol Biotechnol — Averous L, Pollet E Biodegradable polymers. Azevedo HS, Reis RL Understanding the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable polymers and strategies to control their degradation rate Biodegradable systems in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Prog Biomater 2 8 :1— J Environ Eng 6 — Barnes DK Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris. Nature — Adv Eng Mater 14 6 — React Funct Polym — J Appl Polym Sci 28 1 — Appl Environ Microbiol 79 5 — Sci Rep 1 2 :1—4. J Polym Environ 21 2 — Bhatia M, Girdhar A, Tiwari A, Nayarisseri A Implications of a novel Pseudomonas species on low density polyethylene biodegradation: an in vitro to in silico approach. SpringerPlus 3 :1— Bhatnagar S, Kumari R Bioremediation: a sustainable tool for environmental management—a review.